Forex trading,foreign exchange market 10

What is Harami candle?

Harami is a type of Japanese candlestick pattern represented by two bodies, the first of them, larger, with black or red body and the second one, white or green. Its name derives from the Japanese word that means “pregnant” because the graphic that shows resembles a pregnant woman. Generally, the Harami pattern candlestick shows a changing trend. Like other Japanese patterns can be bullish or bearish.

Looking for a bull? Think you’ve spotted a bear? In either case, you might need to learn about the Harami candlestick pattern. It comes in two different varieties: the bearish reversal pattern (which occurs after an uptrend) and the bullish reversal pattern (which occurs after a downtrend). This common candlestick signal is also very easy to spot. To learn how to identify the Harami, the differences between bullish and bearish varieties, and what the Harami candlestick pattern signifies, please scroll down . . .


Whether you’re talking about a Bearish or a Bullish Harami, the pattern will contain two candles and the second will be smaller than the first. Harami actually means pregnant woman in Japanese, which makes sense when you consider this signal’s shape: the second candle is enclosed within the body of the first. You can think of the second candle as the first candle’s baby belly!
If you think you’ve detected a Harami, check for the following criteria. And don’t worry – it’s very easy to spot!
  1. There is an obvious trend occurring, whether it’s an uptrend or a downtrend.
  2. The first candle must continue with the trend’s direction. It will be the same color as the current trend, and it will have a long body.
  3. The second candle must be contained within the first candle’s body (so it opens and closes within the limits of the first candle). It can be either color, and it will have a smaller body. Only the body needs to be contained within the first candle; the wicks are irrelevant.


A Bearish Harami’s first candle indicates that the current uptrend is continuing and the bulls are pushing the price higher. However, the bears then step in and the price opens lower than the previous day’s close. The bulls grab their profits and exit before the price closes lower for the day.
The opposite is true for the Bullish Harami, whose first candle indicates that the current downtrend is continuing and the bears are pushing the price lower. However, the bulls then step in and the price opens higher than the previous day’s close. The bulls now preside and the stock goes up in price.
To learn more about a Harami, look for the following characteristics:
  • The longer the candles, the more forceful the reversal should be.
  • In a Bullish Harami, the higher the second candle closes up on the black candle, the more likely it is that a reversal will occur.
  • In a Bearish Harami, the lower the second candle closes down on the white candle, the more likely it is that a reversal will occur.

Are there any known directional edges for forex options?

What Is Directional Trading?

 Directional Trading Strategies: 

Utilize options to express a view or opinion on potential stock movement 

Focus on achieving “leverage” through proper “Delta” selection

Analyze Key Quantitative Factors to Determine the “Best” Strategy to Utilize

 The Directional Trading Process is:

 Define View 

Structure (Hard) 

Risk Manage (Art)

Directional Traders Mindset/Objective

 Hedging                                    Speculative                                     Yield 

Directional trading seeks to achieve “one” of the above goals  

Option strategies can fall under different goals 

Directional Traders remain OPENto exploring ALLpossible strategiesWhen trading “directionally,” it is REQUIREDto define the goal in advance 


 Directional Trading Trends

Facts and Stats from the Sell-Side 

For 2014, Directional Trading Strategies Dominate Desk Flows

United States Equity Markets Participants Are “Bottoms Up” Investing 

Directional Strategies Are Not just for “Hedge Funds”

 Between 75% to 85% Of Flows are Single Stock Related 

Most Popular Strategies Are:

M&A Based Strategies Term Structure Trades Reversal/Conversions 

Directional Long/Short and Stock Substitutes Strategies Upside Calls

Yield Generation Short Put Sales outsize Active Overwriting

Why Use Options for Directional Trading? 

To create leverage through optionality

To limit downside

To express views on timing or trading ranges→ The lower the volatility, the higher the leverage you get from using optionality 

Implied Volatility Is Key Driver of Option Prices 

Major drivers of option pricing: 

Implied Volatility         



Implied Volatility will tell you if the option is cheap or expensive and if it provides you with high leverage

Options can be compared to insurance premium → premium goes up as uncertainty increases

How to Evaluate Implied Volatility?

Implied vs Realized the basics of the volatility
Spread/Peer Analysis -FX effectEU vs US, XOM vs CVX, JPY vs NKY 
Cap Structure Analysisis credit telling us something else? 
Event Riskare earnings / large catalyst mispriced?
Correlation Analysisare components or benchmark cheaper? 

Imbalances between supply and demand of volatility create inefficiencies such as skews and term structures→ Can be used to enhance risk reward profile of directional trades!

Is forex trading real or a scam?

Foreign exchange fraud is any trading scheme used to defraud traders by convincing them that they can expect to gain a high profit by trading in the foreign exchange market. Currency trading became a common form of fraud in early 2008, according to Michael Dunn of the U.S. Commodity Futures Trading Commission.
The foreign exchange market is at best a zero-sum game, meaning that whatever one trader gains, another loses. However, brokerage commissions and other transaction costs are subtracted from the results of all traders, making foreign exchange a negative-sum game.
If you do an internet search on forex broker scams, the number of results is staggering. While the forex market is slowly becoming more regulated, there are many unscrupulous brokers who should not be in business.

When you're looking to trade forex, it's important to identify brokers that are reliable and viable and to avoid the ones that are not. In order to sort out the strong brokers from the weak, and the reputable ones from those with shady dealings, we must go through a series of steps before depositing a large amount of capital with a broker. Trading is hard enough in itself, but when a broker is implementing practices that work against the trader, making a profit can be nearly impossible.

Separating Forex Fact From Fiction

When researching a potential forex broker, traders must learn to separate fact from fiction. For instance, faced with all sorts of forums posts, articles and disgruntled comments about a broker, we could assume that all traders fail and never make a profit. The traders that fail to make profits then post content online that blames the broker (or some other outside influence) for their own failed strategies.

One common complaint from traders is that a broker was intentionally trying to cause a loss in the form of statements such as, "As soon as I placed the trade, the direction of the market reversed" or "The broker stop hunted my positions;" and "I always had slippage on my orders, and never in my favor." These types of experiences are common among traders and it is quite possible that the broker is not at fault.

It is also entirely possible that new forex traders fail to trade with a tested strategy or trading plan. Instead, they make trades based on psychology (e.g., if a trader feels the market has to move in one direction or the other) and there is essentially a 50% chance they will be correct. When the rookie trader enters a position, they are often entering when their emotions are waning; experienced traders are aware of these junior tendencies and step in, taking the trade the other way. This befuddles new traders and leaves them feeling that the market – or their brokers – are out to get them and take their individual profits. Most of the time, this is not the case—it is simply a failure by the trader to understand market dynamics.

On occasion, losses are the broker's fault. This can occur when a broker attempts to rack up trading commissions at the client's expense. There have been reports of brokers arbitrarily moving quoted rates to trigger stop orders when other brokers' rates have not moved to that price. Luckily for traders, this type of situation is an outlier and not likely to occur. One must remember that trading is usually not a zero-sum game, and brokers primarily make commissions with increased trading volumes. Overall, it is in the best interest of brokers to have long-term clients who trade regularly and thus sustain capital or make a profit.

The slippage issue can often be attributed to behavioral economics. It is common practice for inexperienced traders to panic; they fear to miss a move, so they hit their buy key, or they fear losing more and so they hit the sell key. In volatile exchange rate environments, the broker cannot ensure that an order will be executed at the desired price. This results in sharp movements and slippage. The same is true for stop or limit orders. Some brokers guarantee to stop and limit order fills, while others do not. Even in more transparent markets, slippage occurs, markets move and we don't always get the price we want.

Communication Is Key

Real problems can begin to develop when communication between a trader and their broker begins to break down. If a trader does not receive responses from their broker or the broker provides vague answers to a trader's questions, these are common red flags that a broker may not be looking out for the client's best interest.
Issues of this nature should be resolved and explained to the trader and the broker should also be helpful and display good customer relations. One of the most detrimental issues that may arise between a broker and a trader is the trader's inability to withdraw money from an account.

Broker Research Protects You

Protecting yourself from unscrupulous brokers in the first place is ideal. The following steps should help:
  • Do an online search for reviews of the broker. A generic internet search can provide insights into whether negative comments could just be a disgruntled trader or something more serious. A good supplement to this type of search is the BrokerCheck from the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (FINRA), which will indicate whether there are outstanding legal actions against the broker. And if appropriate, gain a clearer understanding of the U.S. regulations for forex brokers. 
  • Make sure there are no complaints about not being able to withdraw funds. If there are, contact the user if possible and ask them about their experience.
  • Read through all the fine print of the documents when opening an account. Incentives to open an account can often be used against the trader when attempting to withdraw funds. For instance, if a trader deposits $10,000 and gets a $2,000 bonus, and then the trader loses money and attempts to withdraw some remaining funds, the broker may say that they cannot withdraw the bonus funds. Reading the fine print will help make sure you understand all contingencies in these types of instances.
  • If you are satisfied with your research on a particular broker, open a mini account or an account with a small amount of capital. Trade it for a month or more and then attempt a withdrawal. If everything has gone well, it should be relatively safe to deposit more funds. If you have problems, attempt to discuss them with the broker. If that fails, move on and post a detailed account of your experience online so others can learn from your experience.


Where is the biggest oil company in India?

The production of Oil and Gas is the standard for the growth of economy in many ways and works as the backbone of Indian economy. Different oil and gas companies in India have been vigorously contributing towards the fast growth of the economy of India. They even offer business opportunities to many raw material suppliers as well as they are great source of fuel supplies. Most of the oil and gas companies in the country are Public Sector Undertakings (PSU) organised by Indian Government.
If you are confused about and specialities of several top Oil and Gas Companies in the country, you can get thorough information below:

Here is the list of Top 10 Largest Oil And Gas Companies in India

10. Tata Petrodyne

Tata Petrodyne is measured as one of the leading Oil and Gas Companies with yearly turnover of around 200 Billion Dollars. Basically it is a subsidiary company of the great TATA companies. It is recognized for its implausible customer services apart from its main Gas, Oil, and Petroleum Products business. This is a privately-owned company with great employee configuration and has headquartered in Mumbai. This company has interest in two offshore blocks in UK and Australia respectively as well as seven offshore and onshore blocks in different states of India.In the tenth position we have Tata Petrodyne. It is one of the leading groups of the company in the oil and gas sector. Its head office is located in Mumbai, Maharashtra.

The company’s turnover is 100 Billion Dollar. It is the subsidiary of the TATA group of companies founded by J.R.N. Tata. The company has joint ventures with various other international companies and has ties with countries like Amsterdam, Perth, and Jakarta.

9. Oil India Ltd

Oil India Limited (OIL) is placed in the list as it is the second largest hydrocarbon exploration & production (E&P) Indian public sector Company having its headquarters in Duliajan, Assam. This company is run under the organizational control of the Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas of the Indian Government. This oil and gas company is active in the business of development, exploration, and production of crude oil as well as natural gas, conveyance of crude oil and manufacture of liquid petroleum gas. It holds large market capitalisation of Rs. 31,000 crores, serving many employees all over India.

It has more than 11000 employees with a business turnover of 35 Billion Dollar. It is governed by the Ministry of Oil and Natural gas of the country with Mr Utpal. Bora as the Chairman and Managing Director. It was started in the year 1889 and is one of the oldest oil companies of India. The company is a state-owned Navratna and has its corporate offices in Noida.

8. Hindustan Petroleum Corporation

HPCL is an Indian state-owned oil and natural gas company having its headquarters functioning at Mumbai and has gained Navratna status. This company has been ranked 260th in the Fortune Global 500 rankings of the biggest corporations of world in year 2013 and ranked 4th among India’s Companies for year 2012, adding to its popularity. It has nearly 20% marketing share in the country among PSUs as well as holds a strong marketing infrastructure. This Oil and Gas Company is a Navratna PSU of Indian Government contributing in refining and marketing of petroleum based products. It holds 3 refineries and possess extensive network of petrol pumps as well as LPG distributors.

This company is a state owned oil and natural gas company whose head office is located in Mumbai. The company has more than 18000 employees and a business turnover of 8 Million Dollar. It was founded in the year 1974. The Government of India owns 51.11% in the company and was also listed in the Fortune Global 500 list of the world’s biggest corporations as of 2016. M.K. Suvarna is the managing director and Chairman of the company.

7. Gas Authority of India

GAIL or the Gas Authority of India is another state owned oil and natural gas company. Its head office is located in New Delhi. It has more than 4000 employees and an 8 Billion Dollar turnover. This company correctly relates to its names as it has strong influence over all other similar industries in the list of the finest Indian Oil and Gas Company. Its yearly turnover exceeds 10 Billion Dollars and it is more recognised in India as the most politically-immersed. It is known to supply quite affordable Oil, Gas and Petroleum Products to entire world with its headquarters in New Delhi. It is basically a public sector company that employs 4,700+ employees overall.

The company earned its Maharatna status in 2013 by the Government of India. The company was founded in the year 1984. Shri B. C. Tripathi is the Chairman and the managing directors of the country. It is one of the country’s most trusted brands.

6. Cairn India

Founded in the year 2007 this company has its head office in Gurgaon, Haryana . The company’s turnover is 3400 Million Dollar. With more than 2000 employees this is one of the emerging names in the oil and natural gas sector of the company. The Cairn India Company highlights in the fifth position in the list of the topmost oil and gas companies with turnover approximately 3,400 Million Dollars and higher. This Oil and Gas Company stands out from others because of its exceptionally massive business coverage. It is involved in manufacturing the best Oil, Gas and Petroleum Products for different agencies in India and overseas and it is incorporated as a public sector company. It employs large number of employees with number crossing 2000 and it’s headquarter is situated in Gurgaon, Haryana.

The CEO of the company is Mayank Ashar and the chairman Navin Agarwal. The company serves in India and has its holdings in Sri Lanka and also South Africa. It is one among the India’s Top 10 Largest Oil And Gas Companies 2017.

5. Essar Oil Limited

Essar Oil is an established name in India since many decades because of its active contribution in the exploration and production of oil and natural gas, purifying of crude oil, and advertising of petroleum products. It is basically a share of the Essar Group with headquarters in Mumbai.
Basically it runs a major refinery in Vadinar, in Gujarat state which made it the second greatest non-state refiner in India in year 2009.This company is engaged in the exploration of crude oil and marketing of natural gas.

The company’s head office is located in Mumbai. With a turnover of 9 Billion Dollar and more than 75000 employees this company provides great services to its clients. The Chairman of the company is Ravi Ruia and Lalit K Gupta is the Managing director and the CEO. The major refinery of this company is located in Vadinar, Gujarat which makes it the largest non-state refinery of the country.

 4. Reliance Petroleum Limited

The Reliance Petroleum Limited Company rules the domain of oil and gas production since many decades with its headquarters located in Ahmadabad. The company holds the title of being the most versatile and customer-based company in the country and also in the world. It also helps clients by sharing possibilities of finding the most practical oil and gas capitals for business. Apart from supplying oil and other LPG products, it carries out discourses to an extensive platform of audience all over the world. It belongs to a Government-owned sector, having employed more than 10,000 employees.A subsidiary to the Reliance Company Limited was founded in the year 2008.

The company’s head office is located in Ahmadabad, Gujarat and has a turnover of 670 Million Dollar. It has more than 10000 employees. Mukesh Ambani is the key person of this company. Reliance Petroleum Limited has its benefits from an alliance with Chevron India Holdings Pte Limited, Singapore. The Jamnagar refinery is the source for the company’s oil and is the biggest refinery of the country.

3. Bharat Petroleum

The Bharat Petroleum Company tops this list at fourth position as it has effectively turned-over more than 40 Billion Dollars. It is more recommended company as it is quite affordable compared to its competitors, has its headquarters in Bangalore. The company targets to provide the finest quality Oil, Gas and Petroleum Products tested after thorough manufacture process to India and overseas. It belongs to category of a publicly-owned industry with around 14,000+ employees.The head office of Bharath petroleum is located in Mumbai, Maharashtra.

With a turnover of 40 Billion Dollar the company has more than 15000 employees and is well known in the Oil, gas and Petroleum. The company has two major refineries situated in Mumbai and Cochin. The company was ranked in the Fortune 500 global list. S. Varadarajan is the Managing Director and the Chairman of the company. It is also anther undertaking of the Government of India.


This Oil and Gas Company ranks at third position in the list and secures number eight in the entire world. It records a large turns-over over 6.50 Billion Dollars a year and is acknowledged as one of the most reliable industries in India. This Oil and Gas Company belongs to public sector category and has provided employment opportunities for nearly 33,000+ applicants.

The company is involved in exploiting hydrocarbons in 26 sedimentary basins of the country, and operates over 11,000 kilometres of pipelines.Oil and Natural Gas Corporation or the ONGC has its headquarters in Dehradun, Uttarkhand. It was founded in 1956 and has a turnover of 6.50 Billion Dollar. The company has more than 33000+ employees and is one of the biggest names in the Oil and gas sector of the country. It is the largest among all the governments undertaking in the oil and natural gas sector. It was ranked in the Fortune Global 500 and is also 17th among the Top 250 Global Energy Companies by Platts.

1. Indian Oil Corporation

Indian Oil Corporation Limited (briefly identified as IndianOil) is an Indian state-owned oil and gas firm with its headquarters located in New Delhi. This company is the world’s 88th largest companies, as per the Fortune Global 500 list, and the largest in category of public corporation in India when ranked by revenue. It is the Oil and Gas Company that operates the largest and the extensive network of fuel stations all over India, totalling about 20,575. Other brands possessed by this are AutoGas – Automotive Natural Gas, Xtra Premium – Automotive Premium Petrol, Xtra Mile – Automotive Premium Diesel, IndaneGas – Domestic and Industrial Gas and Servo – Lubricants and Greases.
In the first position we have Indian Oil Corporation. This company was started in the year 1959. The company’s headquarters is located in New Delhi, India. It has 28 Billion Dollar turnover and more than 35000 employees. It is another public sector undertaking and has its business spread across the globe. It also has its subsidiaries in Sri Lanka, Mauritius and UAE

These are the major players in the oil and natural gas companies of India 2017. It is highly important to preserve our resource and also make the best use of it.Top Companies involved in business of the Oil & Gas sector not only funds towards the growth of economy through its production but also provides great range of employment prospects to the suitable talents. This sector holds large production process and large base of officials involved for the best outcome in oil and gas production.


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